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publicado em 27/09/2013 às 13h23:00
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According to the study, in 2011, 17,000 people died and 68,000 were hospitalized with diseases linked to pollution

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In 2011, air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2, 5) in the State of São Paulo showed an average 2.5 times higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The result is based on information on pollution levels between 2006 and 2011 and is part of the research Civil Society Organization of Public Interest (Oscip) Health and Sustainability Institute, with the participation of the Faculty of Medicine, USP (USP). The paper also points out that in 2011, there were about 17,000 deaths and 68,000 hospitalizations of patients more susceptible to pollution-related diseases, such as lung cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular problems, which generated an expense of about R $ 240 million for public and private health state.

The study had the collaboration of Professor Paul Saldiva, the USP. The aim was to present data on environmental pollution by PM2, 5 in the State of São Paulo and evaluate its effects on health, mortality and illness, as well as the costs of hospitalization due to problems caused by pollutants, said Dr. Evangelina Vormittag, the Health and Sustainability Institute, who participated in the research. About 40% of the MP in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo is delivered by trucks run on diesel. The remainder comes from the dust from secondary aerosols and resuspension of particles and soot produced by industries.

According to doctors, the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (Cetesb), which has automatic measuring stations distributed in 29 counties in the state, only the MP mensurava 10 microns (μ) by 2010. From 2011, two stations began to measure MP 2.5 μ, to analyze the data from 2006 to 2011, he was made a calculation converting indexes MP 10 μ 2.5 μ. Of all the 29 cities in the state that have Cetesb measurement stations, 11 are above the levels of pollution in the Capital. Levels are higher in Santos and are equivalent in the Greater São Paulo and in the regions of Jundiaí, Campinas, Sorocaba and Piracicaba.

Due to its small size, the MP 2.5 μ can reach the pulmonary alveoli, causing major damage to the body. The medical literature indicates that this material is related to the occurrence of lung cancer and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, says the doctor. Some scientists claim that it is able to pass from the alveoli into the blood stream, causing harmful effects on the heart.

<b> Air Quality Standards </ b>

WHO has published a guide in 2006 establishing parameters for air quality in major cities, with acceptable levels of pollutants. In the case of MP 2.5 μ, the annual limit is 10 μ tolerable according to the WHO. The maximum annual Cetesb admitted to MP 10 μ was 150 micrograms, without there being no standard set for the μ 2.5 MP until 2012, says the researcher. In 2013 the state government issued Decree 59,113, to change the standards, but the document has no deadlines for the adoption of the WHO indices.

Of all deaths registered in 2011 in the State of São Paulo (17 000), 7,900 occurred in the Greater São Paulo and only 4,600 in the city of São Paulo. In São Paulo, the number is about three times higher than deaths from accidents or breast cancer, and six times larger than the AIDS cases or prostate cancer underscores Evangelina. Between 2006 and 2011 there were a total of 100 000 deaths attributable to pollution throughout the state.

Regarding respiratory diseases, the doctor reminds them that they mainly affect children and the elderly over 60 years, while cardiovascular disease and cancer affect especially adults over 40 years of age. The direct costs of hospitalizations reach R $ 70 million in the state (U.S. $ 31 million in capital), the public health system. In private and supplemental spending is $ 170 million.

Evangelina warning that public policies related to the measurement of air quality using high standards, not associated with acceptable levels for human health. Current standards are outdated and far beyond the levels recommended by the WHO, which makes the point of view of health, viewing the reality of facts says. More accurate data are important to guide measures to combat pollution and increase quality of life, as in Mexico City and Bogotá, for example.

With information from USP Agency

   Palavras-chave:   Pollution in sao paulo    Pollution    Environmental pollution    Levels of pollution    Air pollution    WHO    Health   
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