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publicado em 06/08/2013 às 10h08:00
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Cell reprogramming can treat aplastic anemia

People who develop the disease have mutations or genetic defects in the enzyme telomerase

 
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Aplastic anemia is characterized by the production in quantity insufficient, white blood cells, platelets and red bone marrow
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Aplastic anemia is characterized by the production in quantity insufficient, white blood cells, platelets and red bone marrow

Researchers from the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (FMRP), USP and U.S. National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland (USA), took a further step in the search for an alternative treatment for aplastic anemia. The disease is characterized by the production in quantity insufficient, white blood cells, platelets and red bone marrow, causing anemia, bleeding, and infections in patients.

According to Professor Rodrigo Tocantins Draught of Solomon Rodrigues, professor of FMRP, the body is a structure called the telomere, which functions as the plastic on the end of shoelaces, ie, a system of protection. In the case of the body, protects the telomere end of chromosome him not to wear. During cell division, the telomere shortening undergoes a natural.

In stem cells, says the researcher, including hematopoietic, that gives rise to blood cells, there is an enzyme, telomerase, which maintains telomere length, preventing it to be short and giving an almost unlimited capacity to produce cells of the blood (red and white cells, platelets).

People who develop aplastic anemia have mutations or genetic defects in the enzyme telomerase. This causes the telomeres of stem cells undergo shortening and hence to stop producing blood cells effectively. The ideal treatment for these patients would be transplantation of bone marrow which produces blood cells. The disadvantage of this process is to have to find a person who is donating bone marrow compatible with the person who has aplastic anemia.

The Brazilian and American reprogrammed these cells in the lab to the stage of a pluripotent stem cell, which are cells capable of becoming any type of cell in the body. This technique was developed by Briton John B. Gurdon and the Japanese Shinya Yamanaka winners of the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2012.

According to Professor Rodrigo Calado, with reprogramming, it was noticed that the telomeres of a healthy person has reached twice the normal length. But in patients with genetic defect in the enzyme telomerase, telomere lengthening was discreet. They also noted that environmental factors, such as low oxygen concentration during reprogramming, can stimulate the elongation of telomeres.

Draft explains that it was important to understand what modulates alters or affects telomere elongation. The research will now be to elongate the telomere in people with aplastic anemia and possibly bring a new treatment for the disease. Our idea is to make this mature skin cell turn pluripotent stem cell, then turn it in hematopoietic stem cell transplant that cell and back to the patient, making an autograft bone marrow to that person again producing cells Blood.

Source: USP
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Cellular reprogramming    aplastic anemia    enzyme telomerase    telomerase    telomere    Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto    National Institutes of Health    Health   
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