publicado em 05/07/2013 às 14h36:00
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Study uses DNA to differentiate transmitters of Chagas Disease

According to research carried out at Fiocruz, the correct identification of vectors helps to control your

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Foto: RIT DA
Copulation of the genus Rhodnius
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Copulation of the genus Rhodnius

The first study using a methodology known DNA barcoding (barcode DNA) to differentiate transmitters of Chagas disease was developed in ~ Graduate Program in Biodiversity and Health of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC / Fiocruz).

By great epidemiological importance in the transmission of Chagas disease, the insect species of the genus Rhodnius are among the most studied in Triatominae and difficult to differentiate between their species remains a scientific challenge.

The process of identification of species, according to biologist Dale White Carolina Coutinho, responsible for dissertation, is key for the recognition and description of biodiversity. Correct identification of vectors and the development of more accurate methods for species identification, as the technique of barcode DNA, may contribute to the control of vectors. The genus Rhodnius, in particular, is gaining prominence due to the increased number of cases of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon. According to the architects, the new tool aids in mapping biodiversity and taxonomy, regardless of a deeper training in classical taxonomy, enabling the identification of a kind of quickly and easily,

The challenge justifies the importance of a study can use the barcode DNA of these species as a strategy to differentiate them. Species with similar morphological characteristics may have different vectorial capacity. The bar code will work in the identification of these species already known, as also assist in the discovery of new, says Carolina Coutinho.

<b> DNA extraction </ b>

In the study, we used insects collected in the field and specimens deposited in Biological Collections. Method was used for extracting DNA from insects which guaranteed the integrity of samples from collections dry and wet, ensuring the preservation of specimens of historical and scientific importance. Of the 178 specimens used in the research, 65 were from the genus Rhodnius and gene sequences obtained were checked already deposited in the GenBank database online international genetic sequences.

The barcode DNA is a system designed to provide the fast, accurate and automated species identification using a standardized region of its genetic code. For work, we used the mitochondrial gene known as cytochrome oxidase I (COI) marker adopted in the global identification for animals. The cytochrome oxidase I was chosen to provide the most accurate phylogenetic information of all animal phyla, the teacher explains.

The DNA of some samples was too degraded, probably by way of conservation of insects in collections, making it difficult to obtain the sequence of the same. ~ However, the results of samples of species and field colonies showed that the DNA sequences of different species of Rhodnius have expected differences in the evolutionary process of each species. The pattern of divergence found in insects of the same species ranged between 0 and 2.6%, as in insects of different species ranged from 2.8 to 17.4%, the researcher concludes.

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DNA barcoding    barcode DNA    transmitters of Chagas disease    Chagas disease    Rhodnius    Triatominae    IOC / Fiocruz    Carolina White Dale Coutinho   
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