publicado em 17/06/2013 às 01h59:00
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Low production of antibiotics increases concern superbacteria

Two years after the publication of the manifesto on spread of superbugs in the world scenario is not encouraging

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Two years after the publication of the manifesto on spread of superbugs in the world, in the medical journal The Lancet, the scenario is not encouraging, although some progress. The manifesto made by professionals and medical institutes, in 2011, drew attention to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, which can lead to a scenario in which existing drugs become obsolete.

"We are losing these drugs," said the doctor Rosana Richtmann, the Emilio Ribas Institute of Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Ministry of Health

Richtmann highlights that just a short time so that there are reports of resistance even newer antibiotics. "They [resistance mechanisms] are getting faster. Issue I'm talking about six months to a year," he said. She explains that with this, the industrial investments are more focused on chronic diseases such as hypertension. "Even for infectious diseases develop drugs against hepatitis or fungi seems most interesting, because it has the same mechanism of bacterial resistance" was evaluated.

The last recorded case occurred in the country in May this year, when it was identified the presence of the gene type carbapenemase New Delhi metallobetalactamase (NDM) in five patients Conception Hospital, in Porto Alegre. In 2010, at least 35 cases of contamination by superbugs Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in Recife. The infectious medical notes, however, that for the vast majority of bacteria in Brazil existing antibiotics are effective.

This characteristic makes some common infections such as urinary require the more potent drugs that were used previously. "It's a banal infection, especially among women, but we are seeing that bacteria were sensitive to antibiotics no longer gives more basic to use, has an advanced degree of inefficiency," explained Richtmann. Another example highlighted by medical are infections caused by pneumococcus, such as meningitis and pneumonia. "We always treated with penicillin and now we are seeing that are less sensitive types."

Richtmann considered that the first step to contain the spread of superbugs starts with simple actions. "All hospitals have to have today commission hospital infection control. Prior to encourage thinking in the industry, new drugs, because it has a high cost, it is more feasible to start with what we have," he said.

If on one hand increased control in hospitals and the level of demand for the purchase of antibiotics, on the other the global pharmaceutical industry reduced the search for new drugs that would be able to contain these multiresistant bacteria. "[Produce antibiotics] has been a good deal. Spends, for example, U.S. $ 1 billion dollars to search 10,000 new compounds and reach. When he arrives in the market, the bacteria became resistant," explained Marcos Antonio Cyrillo doctor, member of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases. In 2008, for example, no new antibiotics came on the market, reported infectious disease.

Bacterial resistance occurs because they, unlike other diseases are live microorganisms capable of imparting the resistance gene. "If we have ten bacteria in the body, for example, nine are sensitive to the antibiotic and is tough, you take the medicine and went. Between 20 to 20 minutes it will multiply and transmitting resistance gene to his daughters," explained Cyrillo . Therefore it is essential that patients make use of the medicine in the period and the dosage prescribed by the doctor.

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