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publicado em 10/06/2013 às 13h39:00
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New test Fiocruz allows diagnosis of leptospirosis in 24 hours

Current tests take up to seven days to give a result. New protocol will help even in control mice

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Foto: Gutemberg Brito/Fiocruz
A researcher at Fiocruz Ilana Balassiano, author of the study
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A researcher at Fiocruz Ilana Balassiano, author of the study

Researchers from the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC / Fiocruz), which houses the National Reference Center for Leptospirosis, created an innovative protocol that combines two procedures give the result of the test for leptospirosis in 24 hours.

"Organisms of the genus Leptospira have extremely slow growth in the laboratory. hemocultura In a report can take up to two months to leave. But neither doctor nor patient have this time. Leptospirosis is an acute disease that can cause three days after the first manifestations, jaundice, bleeding and renal failure. Output is serological diagnosis, which identifies the antibodies produced by the body. Yet today, one must wait between five and seven days after the onset of symptoms, during which bacteria has stopped circulating in the blood to make room for antibodies, "says researcher Ilana Balassiano, author of the study.

According to the researcher, the great advantage of the result is that when early diagnosis is made until the fourth day of symptoms, the doctor may initiate therapeutic measures aiming to reduce the chances of progression to the severe form of the disease, which affects 10 % of those infected. "From the serogroup of bacteria, it is also possible to point out which species of rodent was involved in the chain of transmission and strategize specific control and surveillance. Delivers up immediate action to prevent the occurrence of an outbreak where there was infection. "

O estudo foi publicado na revista científica DiagnosticMicrobiology & Infectious Disease.

For the development of the technique, we used sera infected by Leptospira in the laboratory. Currently, the protocol is under validation and team selects sera from patients diagnosed in different regions of the country to test the effectiveness of the method. Accredited by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center emLeptospirose for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Laboratory was the first unit to incorporate the new technique. As it requires a PCR equipment, would be restricted to central laboratories (Lacen) and national reference. But the answers to these units would for surveillance and its implications on public health would benefit the entire population, he says.

According to the Ministry of Health in Brazil, leptospirosis has an average of 4000 cases reported each year. But it causes, emcerca 90% of cases of dengue fever-like symptoms and other viruses, it is believed that the number of notifications is less. Among the reasons is the difficulty of making the diagnosis, especially early in infection, when the use of antibiotics can also prevent progression to more severe disease.

<b> Procedures </ b>

In the first step, called capture immunological 96-well plates given different reference hyperimmune sera. These polyclonal sera present, ie, specific immunoglobulins against serogroups of Leptospira more epidemiological relevance for Brazil. Serum groups are distinct variations within the species of bacteria, encompassing different lineages.

Then, each antibody is set in a different well and all receive, then the serum of a patient infected. Affinity antibodies against serogroup specific bacterium that capture, allowing the laboratory technician obtains a concentrated Leptospira set in the corresponding well of the plate. However, this reaction is not visible to the eye. Therefore, we submit the card to PCR analysis, the second step of the protocol. Bacteria have captured a fragment of your amplified DNA, providing the scientist to prove the infection and an indication of likely infecting serogroup, complete Ilana.

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diagnosis of leptospirosis in 24 hours    leptospirosis    protocol Fiocruz    Bacterial Zoonoses Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute    National Reference Center for Leptospirosis    Ilana Balassiano   
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