Health Profession
publicado em 21/01/2013 às 13h05:00
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Crimes of torture still occur with support from doctors, study finds

Changes in laws around the world were not able to prevent the participation of professionals in these crimes

 
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Foto: Marcos Santos/USP Imagens
New laws were not able to restrain the participation of physicians in torture
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New laws were not able to restrain the participation of physicians in torture

Search the Faculty of Law, University of São Paulo (USP) shows that medicine is still used as an essential element in improving the crime of torture. The study which took two years to complete evidence indicates that armies of many countries continue adopting methods of obtaining information by using force. According to the study by the Virginia attorney Novaes Procopio de Araujo, changes in legislation around the world, creating Codes of Ethics, undeniable advances in the field of Human Rights, and International Law, were unable to prevent the participation of physicians in these crimes since the Second World War, to the present day.

During World War II, the role of the physician was to create a production line of death that appeared something scientific. Today, we can say that the medical malfeasance evolved in order to improve the achievement of information with less physical damage and therefore less evidence of torture, says the researcher.

For Virginia, procedures classified today as a means of obtaining national security information are actually acts of torture masked, found legal loopholes to justify the use of force, with decisive participation of doctors. In the current U.S. war against terrorism, for example, the Red Cross had no access to the prisoners, which shows disrespect for doctors to Istanbul Protocol, which requires them to document abuses that prisoners were subjected Army, and request international aid. These professionals also violated his doctor role of war as exposes the Geneva Conventions, which provides aid to health for all, including enemies, he said.

<b> bioethics and medical ethics code </ b>

Bioethics is an interdisciplinary science dedicated to reflecting about eigenvalues ​​of health and human life present in the curricula of academic professionals in healthcare. Bioethics applied to medicine is based on the following principles: Charity, which obliges the doctor to always choose the right treatment for the patient, not to harm, which requires the doctor to not generate any intentional damage to the patient; Justice , recommends that the impartiality of the physician in the distribution of risks and benefits of all patients, without distinction, finally, Autonomy, in which the physician must respect the patient's wishes.

The lawyer explains that by using their expertise to improve the methods used in the crimes of torture, circumvent the new laws - is reducing physical damage apparent evidence of torture, is sharing information obtained in examinations that reveal weaknesses of physical and psychological torture to be explored, or even falsifying death certificates - doctors incur maleficent behavior and violate their own code of ethics.

"These professionals also violated his doctor role of war as exposes the Geneva Conventions, which provides aid to health for all, including enemies"

<b> Guantanamo Detention </ b>

Virginia reports that recent reports produced by the organization Physicians for Human Rights and the Public Committee against Torture in Israel, denounce the maleficent behavior of doctors involved in crimes of torture in the country, where the Supreme Court itself seems to accept the use of physical force in interrogations justified the principle of the need to obtain information and the resulting saving lives.

In similar stance, the existence of the detention center at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where the United States maintains hundreds of prisoners of war, is a strong indication that torture continues to be practiced by the Americans, under the name of enhanced techniques interrogation, pointing Virginia. In the official report of the Central Intelligence Agency U.S. (CIA) on these techniques, the method waterboarding, it is essential the presence of a doctor and an oximeter to measure the amount of oxygen in the interrogation and possible risk of death. Although President Barack Obama has admitted that this practice is no longer used, little is known of what happens at Guantanamo, the researcher adds.

<b> Penalties </ b>

For Virginia, the tightening of laws alone is not effective to solve this problem: Doctors failed to prevent a violation of the Hippocratic Oath, the Nuremberg Code, the provisions of the World Medical Association and Bioethics, the Convention against Torture, etc. . Standards have not been able to curb the involvement of medical and legal gaps were filled allowing abuses and impunity.

Only a concerted effort on multiple fronts, can, in the researcher's point of view, represent a breakthrough in resolving the issue: We must recognize that the problem exists, and that some doctors disregard their oath and international treaties. We must invest in education and training of future professionals humanized. Moreover, it is necessary to create protection agencies of doctors so that they can denounce crimes of torture without suffering any retaliation. Finally, it is essential to the conviction of those involved, either criminally or before its board of medicine, and wide dissemination of this illicit, to demonstrate that there are consequences for those who assist in torture.

<i> With the information USP </ i>

Source: Isaude.net
   Palavras-chave:   Torture    Doctors    World War II    Faculty of Law    FD    University of São Paulo    USP   
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