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Kidney transplants in Rio de Janeiro are lower than expected

The organ transplant is the most in the world and they are mainly responsible for the elimination of toxins

 
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Foto: Ivan Baldivieso/AGECOM-BA
Number of kidney transplants in Rio de Janeiro is below average
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Number of kidney transplants in Rio de Janeiro is below average

The kidney is the organ most transplanted around the world, said Dr. Renato Torres Gonçalves, coordinator of the Medical Transplant Unit of the Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF). Thus, the series for a good cause on organ transplantation highlights the kidney transplants, which, according to the doctor, are the easiest to apply and better outcomes.

The kidneys are the main organs responsible for elimination of toxins. They filter the blood and excrete unwanted substances to the body. Are also critical to keep fluids and body salts at desired levels and participates in blood pressure control.

Chronic kidney disease is a major complication due to hypertension, diabetes mellitus and other glomerular diseases, tubular interstitial, Renato Gonçalves notes. Its main symptoms are: weakness, fatigue, swelling of the feet, legs or face, difficulty urinating, urine, foam, or dark reddish, increase or decrease in amount of urine. She progressively degenerates the body to a complete loss of their functions, leading to the need for transplantation.

According to the Brazilian Registry of Transplant (RBT) in 2009, until September, 3098 kidney transplants were performed in Brazil. Below the national average, 21.8 transplants per million inhabitants (pmi), the state of Rio de Janeiro has the index of only 12.8 against 41.1 pmh transplants of São Paulo and Santa Catarina 39.9. Statistics from the University Hospital revealed a less than rosy picture. By 2006 the HUCFF performed 80 to 90 kidney transplants annually. In 2007 and 2008 held half that number, and in 2009, only four patients (until November 10).

For Dr. Eduardo Rocha, coordinator of educational and scientific Transplant Unit of the Nephrology Service HUCFF, the inefficiency of the services that meet the potential organ donors and the insufficiency and inefficiency of institutions that perform kidney transplants explain the panorama of Rio de Janeiro. On average, patients wait in line for seven years the Health Department of been waiting for a kidney transplant. The compatibility of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a key requirement in the distribution of organs for transplantation.

Calvary until surgery

While waiting their turn, patients live for a routine scheduled therapy sessions. Hemodialysis is one of the renal replacement therapies, usually held three times a week, four hours. Another therapy is peritoneal dialysis. They do not fully cater to a healthy kidney function, requiring the patient to make use of medications to correct, among others, anemia and bone disease, explains Dr. Renato.

Many patients die from cardiovascular disease before they can receive a transplanted organ. Common clinical problems among patients with chronic renal failure, infections, tumors and atherosclerotic disease, may also hinder or prevent the completion of the transplant, evaluates Eduardo.

Postoperative

To prevent rejection of new kidney, recipients must take immunosuppressive drugs. Today we have very effective immunosuppressants, which put the survival of patients and grafts after the first year, more than 90%, 95%. Where it is necessary to make use of an immunosuppressive drug, but in number and smaller doses than in the initial phase of renal transplantation, said Eduardo Rocha.

The duration of the new organ donor's age, its type (living or deceased) of HLA match, the complications in the first six months and also of medical conditions (cardiovascular) that patients present. A transplant can last a few months or years, depending on characteristics of the recipient and donor. In general, living donor transplants generate lasting more than 15 years, said Dr. Renato.

France

France

Source: UFRJ
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Kidney Transplantation    Haemodialysis    Renal Transplantation    hypertension    diabetes mellitus    University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho    UFRJ    Renato Torres Gonçalves   
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