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Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2012 rewards work with stem cells

John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka found that adult cells can be "reprogrammed" to become pluripotent

 
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Foto: Gladstone Institutes
Ilustração: Mattias Karlén
Shinya Yamanaka, a winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, 2012 Infographic research shows that win the Nobel Prize in Medicine, 2012
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Shinya Yamanaka, a winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, 2012
Infographic research shows that win the Nobel Prize in Medicine, 2012

The Karolinska Institute in Sweden, has offered the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2012 to two researchers, Briton John B. Gurdon, 79, and Japan's Shinya Yamanaka, 50, for his work with stem cells.

Scientists have found, in separate studies that adult cells can be "reprogrammed" to become pluripotent, that is able to specialize in any organ or tissue.

The discoveries revolutionized the understanding of how cells and organisms develop.

John B. Gurdon showed in 1962 that the specialization of cells is reversible. In a classic experiment, he replaced the cell nucleus in an immature egg cell of a sapo with the nucleus from a mature cell tract.

This egg cell has changed and developed in a normal tadpole, although the DNA of the mature cell contains all information necessary to develop each of the cells of the individual.

More than 40 years later, Yamanaka discovered how mature cells of intact mice could be reprogrammed to become stem cells immature. He found some genes that could restore the state of pluripotent cells.

These genes were then introduced into mature connective tissue cells, called fibroblasts and located in the second layer of the skin to the dermis. Thus, cells were again grown immature, with the possibility of generating neurons to intestinal cells.

The results of studies of Gurdon and Yamanaka revolutionized the understanding of how cells and organisms develop and targeting. This made it possible to carry out further research into diseases and new methods of diagnosis and treatment. In addition, textbooks were rewritten and appeared new areas of research.

Both works also brought great advances in the area of ​​regenerative medicine, to lay the foundation for reprogramming adult cells into stem cells.

Veja mais detalhes sobre as pesquisas (em inglês).

Source: Isaude.net
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