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publicado em 18/07/2012 às 11h41:00
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Hearing loss affects about 36% of children and young people with HIV

Research also shows that USP adolescents with cystic fibrosis have a diet with high consumption of sugar, saturated fat and sodium

 
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Foto: Camila Alvarez/SerCom-Centrinho/USP
Study reveals that hearing loss is much higher among children with HIV-AIDS, 36% of individuals assessed
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Study reveals that hearing loss is much higher among children with HIV-AIDS, 36% of individuals assessed

Hearing loss and suppurative otitis media - inflammation of the middle ear that can be caused by the use of an antiretroviral therapy - have a high incidence among children and adolescents with HIV-AIDS, reaching at least 36% of the subjects, according to a study at the University of São Paulo (USP).

Another survey conducted in USP shows that adolescents with HIV-AIDS, yet need the principle of extra care with food, have a diet similar to that of non-carriers - with high consumption of sugar, saturated fat and sodium intake Not enough whole grains and fruits.

Both studies were part of the project Qualidade de vida e sua relação com o curso de vida de crianças e adolescentes portadores de HIV-Aids, supported by FAPESP through the Research Grants - Regular, coordinated by Professor Maria do Rosário Latorre, School of Public Health (FSP), USP.

Studies on hearing loss and the diet corresponded respectively to the doctoral thesis of Aline da Silva Medeiros and dissertation Luana Tanaka. Both were directed by Latorre and defended in 2011 in the FSP-USP, FAPESP grants. In this research, the project generated more than one PhD and two Masters still ongoing.

According to Latorre, cohort studies were conducted with children potadoras HIV-AIDS treated at the Children's Institute, Hospital das Clinicas, Medical School of USP.

The project aimed to analyze the quality of life of children and adolescents with HIV-AIDS in relation to health, adherence to medication use, presence of lipodystrophy, hearing loss and survival, Latorre said the agency FAPESP.

Silva, who is a speech therapist, examined 106 individuals with HIV-AIDS aged 5-19 years, treated at the Children's Institute, in order to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among them, identifying the factors associated with this occurrence. Beyond the PhD, Silva had scholarships from FAPESP Scientific Initiation and also in the Masters.

Two criteria were used to identify hearing loss. The BIAP, an international classification which takes an average of results from an audiometry, is widely used for diagnosis of hearing loss. The ASHA is a more stringent criterion, which ranks very small changes such as hearing loss.

Ideally, the public service, these children were valiadas every six months with an audiometry

Even in the classification BIAP, these children and adolescents showed a very high prevalence of hearing loss: 35.8%. ASHA, the prevalence reached 59.4%. Population-based studies conducted in Brazil show that among children without HIV-AIDS, the prevalence of hearing loss can range from 2% to 20% depending on the criteria, said Silva.

Suppurative otitis media, according to Silva, appeared as a risk factor for hearing loss. It was also a correlation between detected hearing loss and antiretroviral use of lamivudine.

Children who had suppurative otitis media had a higher prevalence of hearing loss, as well as those used to Lamivudine. Both individuals showed inflammation, such as those used antiretroviral showed a six times greater chance of hearing loss, he said.

From the findings, Silva recommends that children with HIV-AIDS have long-term monitoring and are periodically evaluated in relation to hearing loss.

These children have very weak immune system and need special care. Ideally, the public service, these children were valiadas every six months with an audiometry in order to monitor the frame before that hearing loss is established, he said.

In the study on the diet, Tanaka used the data from interviews with 88 individuals from 10 to 19 years, with HIV-AIDS, assisted by the Office of the Child. The methodology consisted of applying a Brazilian adaptation of the Diet Quality Index, which assesses consumption items such as fruits, vegetables, oils, cereals, grains, saturated fats, sodium and others.

Some values ​​have drawn attention. We found that 72% of adolescents do not consume cereals integrals. The increased intake of sodium occurs in 86% of respondents. We also found medium to low consumption of fruits and calories from solid fats, Tanaka said.

According Tanaka, the figures show a low quality diet, however, differs from the typical diet of Brazilian adolescents without HIV-AIDS. According to her, the study indicates that there is a need to improve the diet of young people infected.

The international literature shows that the antiretroviral therapy may contribute to the increase in fat in the abdominal region and can be associated with increased levels of bad cholesterol. So many of these teens are subjected to greater risks than people not infected when they feed poorly. However, the way they feed is similar, he said.

The study, according to Tanaka, it is recommended that treatment of young HIV-AIDS is not only focused on the rigor of antiretroviral therapy, but that takes into account the quality of life of patients, concerned broadly with the food, physical activity, hearing loss and the onset of opportunistic diseases.

Source: USP
   Palavras-chave:   HIV    AIDS    Hearing loss    Ear infections    Quality of life    Antiretroviral    University of Sao Paulo   
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