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publicado em 11/05/2012 às 13h55:00
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Hearing loss affects nearly 60% of children and young people with HIV

Search USP shows that the public have a higher prevalence of hearing loss that people do not carry the virus

 
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Foto: Camila Alvarez/ SerCom-Centrinho/USP
In the two classifications used, the prevalence of hearing loss group was greater than in the rest of the population
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In the two classifications used, the prevalence of hearing loss group was greater than in the rest of the population

Study conducted at the School of Public Health (FSP) of USP shows that hearing loss affects nearly 60% of children and young people with HIV prevalence greater than the population does not carry the virus. The study, authored by speech therapist Aline da Silva Medeiros, found that there are mainly three types of factors that can lead to hearing loss, and they own the AIDS virus infections from the disease and the medicine used to control the disease.

Two different classifications were used to assess what is hearing loss. The ASHA is more stringent classification and classifies as small changes already signs of hearing loss. According to Aline, it is good to keep an eye because it points out minor changes. Since the classification BIAP is more practical and less rigorous. Through audiometry in 106 youngsters, aged between 5 and 19 years in the city of São Paulo, it was observed that the prevalence of hearing loss was 59.4% for the ASHA classification and 35.8% for BIAP. In the population that does not have the disease data are not standardized, but the prevalence varies from 2% to 24%, says Aline.

In the research evaluation of hearing loss in children and adolescents with HIV / AIDS, the therapist also noted that the occurrence of suppurative otitis media ear infection with fluid discharge (pus) is a risk factor for hearing loss. In the sample, it was observed that anyone who had ever had this type of otitis had hearing loss, both for classification by ASHA as BIAP.

Lamivudine (3TC)

Analyzing the antiretrovirals taken by the youth of the research, was also observed a relationship between the antiretroviral lamivudine (3TC) and hearing loss, the classification BIAP. In young people who did not use 3TC and had suppurative otitis media or not, the prevalence of hearing loss was 11.5%, but the figure was 70.8% in those using lamivudine and had suppurative otitis media. According to the study, have suppurative otitis media 5.7 gives more chances of a young man with HIV have hearing loss, and 3TC 5.8 gives more chances.

The therapist points out that 3TC is described as a drug by young people with good taste, which contributes to their high adhesion with the public. Consequently, there is greater exposure to possible side effects of antiretroviral therapy. Were also analyzed factors such as length of drug use, duration of treatment and patient's age, but these factors did not influence the occurrence of hearing loss. What we observe is that the prevalence of hearing loss among those who used the drug and has had suppurative otitis media was very high, regardless of time of use, she says.

According to Aline, the association of medicine with hearing loss was a surprise. She believes further studies are needed to verify that the Lamivudine actually cause hearing loss in children and young people as a side effect, because so far the only related studies about effects of some antiretroviral drugs in adults only.

With the ASHA classification was also observed that young people who had HIV encephalopathy (central nervous system disease that can lead to major neurological sequelae) also had a higher prevalence of hearing loss.

To Aline, his research draws attention to a situation: that young people with AIDS have been hearing complaints and that studies should be performed on it. Among youth in the sample, 27.4% of them complained of hearing difficulty in the last year, ie you need a monitoring program for them. The study's author suggests a program of regular monitoring and long term to prevent hearing loss. According to her, and now patients have a higher survival, taking the drug for longer and more side effects. Thus, it becomes even more important to investigate the effect of drugs (especially 3TC ) at the hearing.

Source: USP
   Palavras-chave:   Aids    Hearing loss    Speech therapy    HIV    University of São Paulo    School of Public Health   
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