publicado em 16/01/2012 às 16h00:00
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Exercise during work and leisure reduces risk of heart attack

Use of car and TV has connections with increased risk of heart attacks, especially in low-and middle-income

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Study provides evidence that physical exercise during work and leisure time significantly reduces the risk of heart attacks. According to the survey, the use of car and TV has connections with increased risk of heart attacks, particularly in low-and middle-income.

The findings come from the INTERHEART study, a case-control more than 29,000 people from 262 centers in 52 countries in Asia, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Australia, North and South America.

"Until now, few studies have examined different aspects of physical activity at work and at leisure in relation to the risk of heart attacks. Much is known about the association between physical activity and cardiovascular risk, but what this study adds, among many other things, is a global perspective. The study shows that mild to moderate physical activity at work, and any level of physical activity during leisure time reduces the risk of heart attack, independent of other traditional risk factors in men and women of all ages, in most regions of the world and in countries with income levels low, medium or high. Interestingly, the heavy physical labor at work does not protect against heart attacks, said Professor Claes Held, the study's first author.

"These data extend the importance of physical activity and confirm a consistent protective effect of physical activity at all income levels in the country beyond the known benefits of modifying traditional risk factors such as smoking. In addition, ownership of a car and a TV that promote sedentary behaviors, was independently associated with risk of heart attacks.

Prof. Held (MD, PhD), who is Associate Professor of Clinical Research Center and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden [2], and their colleagues from Canada and the USA, compared the work and exercise habits of Leisure 10,043 people who had suffered his first heart attack, with 14,217 healthy people? (control group). They asked participants if their work was mainly sedentary, or predominantly walking on one level, and mostly on foot, including walking uphill or lifting heavy objects or heavy physical work. For physical activity during their leisure time, participants could choose between four possible answers: mainly sedentary (sitting activities such as sitting down to read, watch TV), mild exercise (minimal effort activities such as yoga, fishing, boating walking), moderate exercise (moderate effort such as walking, cycling or gardening take at least four hours per week), and strenuous exercise (when the heart beats fast, like running, vigorous swimming or soccer).

They also asked about the ownership of property like a car, motorcycle, radio / stereo, television, computer, land and cattle.

After adjusting for confounders such as age, gender, national origin, income, smoking, alcohol, education, health, diet, etc.. they found that people whose work involved physical activity had a mild or moderate (22%) or 1 / 10 (11%) lower risk of suffering a heart attack compared to people whose job was mainly sedentary. However, heavy physical labor did not reduce the risk at all. During leisure time, the risk of a heart attack was lower for any level of exercise when compared with being mainly sedentary, reducing by 13% for light activity and 24% for moderate or vigorous physical activity.

People who had a car and a TV, both indicators of a sedentary lifestyle, had a 27% increased risk of a heart attack, compared with those who had neither a car nor a TV.

The highest proportion of people in low-income countries have sedentary jobs and undertook less physical activity during leisure time, that in countries with medium and high income. "These differences in PA [physical activity] were more pronounced in leisure-activity relationship. This may be partly explained by differences in education and other socioeconomic factors. Moreover, it may also reflect differences in culture and climate. The probability of a subject perform PA in leisure time in areas with tropical or warm is less than in more temperate areas of the world, the authors write

The authors conclude that moderate physical exercise every day should be encouraged at all to prevent heart disease. The Professor. Held said: "The data have some implications in real life. One suggestion might be for low-income countries to be more involved in promoting physical activity as their companies begin to use more labor-saving devices in order to counteract inactivity that it might take. However, it is also important to promote physical activity in all parts of the world, "the authors write.

In an accompanying editorial [3], Drs Emeline Van Craenenbroeck and Viviane Conraads University Hospital of Antwerp, Belgium, wrote: "Two main issues have been addressed [by the INTERHEART study]: making the different components of daily physical activity (work or leisure) differ in their ability to reduce the risk of AMI [acute myocardial infarction], and secondly, are potential markers of a sedentary life, like owning a car or a TV, associated with an increased cardiovascular risk? The answer to both questions appears to be a sincere "yes."

One finding is that they stand the risk of a heart attack was reduced, even in those who exercised well below currently accepted guidelines for activities, and they point to what may be "particularly useful when it comes to motivation strategies" .

They conclude: "Although timely and of great importance, the role of Al Held et leaves clinicians with the Herculean task of translating this evidence into effective preventive care. If we want to support healthy longevity, we must put an end to the pandemic of inactivity .. .

"Being physically fit throughout life may well be one of the easiest, cheapest and most effective in preventing coronary care unit.

   Palavras-chave:   Exercise    Exercise    Work    Leisure    Car    TV      
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