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publicado em 25/09/2011 às 11h30:00
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Superbug found in Brazil is a relative of moving abroad

Discovery reinforces the potential for worldwide spread of the pathogen is resistant to most antibiotics available

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Cultura com a bactéria Klebsiella pneumoniae
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Cultura com a bactéria Klebsiella pneumoniae

Responsible for outbreaks recorded in Brazilian hospitals, the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemases (KPC), has been the subject of a study developed by the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC / Fiocruz). The research carried out a molecular analysis of samples collected between 2006 and 2009 and found that the bacterium that circulated in Brazil at that time is genetically similar to strains that caused outbreaks in countries such as Israel, China, Norway, England, Greece and the United States. A preliminary assessment indicates that the samples of 2010 and 2011, a period with the highest number of cases in Brazil, also belong to the same group. The discovery reinforces the high potential for spread of the pathogen is resistant to most available antibiotics.

In the 57 samples collected between 2006 and 2009 in different regions of the country, we found 28 genotypes or clones of the bacterium. In addition to ST11, clone first isolated in Brazil, in Recife, we observed the predominance of S437 present in Rio de Janeiro, Ceará, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo and Santa Catarina. The two are the same clonal complex of the S258, responsible for major outbreaks abroad, explains the head of the Research Laboratory of Hospital Infection of the IOC and the study, Marise Dutra Asensi. Of the seven genes sequenced and that are essential for the bacterium, only a clone of the epidemic differs from other countries in both cases. This shows that have undergone a mutation, but still the same clonal complex, adds the researcher.

According to Ana Paula Assef bacteriologist at the same laboratory, more than 600 genotypes are described in scientific literature. The research is important because today we know that we are dealing with an epidemic clone, which has characteristics of strength and ability to spread already known, the expert assesses. She emphasizes the importance of control measures at the hospital. Besides the isolation of the patient, measures such as use of personal protective equipment, gloves and gowns by the clinical staff of hospitals, maintaining strict surveillance measures and the adoption of a policy for appropriate use of antibiotics are essential, he stresses. The study results were published in article form in the journal Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.

The team continues to study the area further investigation of samples received between 2010 and 2011 by the laboratory, which acts as a Collaborating Centre of the Network of Antimicrobial Resistance of the Ministry of Health Early diagnosis is one of our great allies in the fight against the spread of KPC. So in May this year has trained professionals from central public health laboratories (Lacen) of ten states to perform diagnosis of KPC-producing bacteria and other bacteria, concludes.

<b> Spread in Brazil and the world </ b>

KPC was first identified in 2001 in the United States, from the analysis of a sample collected in 1996. In 2003, an outbreak occurred in New York that has spread to the American West. In Europe, the first case was reported in France in 2005, and from there spread to other European countries. In addition to these regions were also identified cases in Israel. In Brazil, the first case was identified in 2009 in a single sample in 2006. Then, another case was identified in 2009, but the sample studied was 2007. Since then, several reports have emerged in the country.

   Palavras-chave:   Multiresistant bacteria    Superbug    Outbreak    Hospitals    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases    KPC    Fiocruz    Research    Genetic similarity    Spreading   
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